The Journal of biological chemistry

Structural determinants of discrimination of NAD+ from NADH in yeast mitochondrial NADH kinase Pos5.

PMID 21730068


NAD kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of NAD(+) to synthesize NADP(+), whereas NADH kinase catalyzes conversion of NADH to NADPH. The mitochondrial protein Pos5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows much higher NADH kinase than NAD kinase activity and is therefore referred to as NADH kinase. To clarify the structural determinant underlying the high NADH kinase activity of Pos5 and its selectivity for NADH over NAD(+), we determined the tertiary structure of Pos5 complexed with NADH at a resolution of 2.0 Å. Detailed analysis, including a comparison of the tertiary structure of Pos5 with the structures of human and bacterial NAD kinases, revealed that Arg-293 of Pos5, corresponding to His-351 of human NAD kinase, confers a positive charge on the surface of NADH-binding site, whereas the corresponding His residue does not. Accordingly, conversion of the Arg-293 into a His residue reduced the ratio of NADH kinase activity to NAD kinase activity from 8.6 to 2.1. Conversely, simultaneous changes of Ala-330 and His-351 of human NAD kinase into Ser and Arg residues significantly increased the ratio of NADH kinase activity to NAD kinase activity from 0.043 to 1.39; human Ala-330 corresponds to Pos5 Ser-272, which interacts with the side chain of Arg-293. Arg-293 and Ser-272 were highly conserved in Pos5 homologs (putative NADH kinases), but not in putative NAD kinases. Thus, Arg-293 of Pos5 is a major determinant of NADH selectivity. Moreover, Ser-272 appears to assist Arg-293 in achieving the appropriate conformation.