Irish journal of medical science

Androgen receptor coregulators NOCR1, TIF2, and ARA70 may account for the hydroxyflutamide insensitivity of prostate cancer cells.

PMID 21748440


Prostate cancer cells can switch from an androgen-dependent state to an androgen-independent state after a continuous androgen ablation therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this switch are still unclear. Therefore, we explored the change in androgen receptor (AR)-related gene expression during this transition in a novel cell model. Prostate cancer cells were continuously treated with competitive androgen receptor inhibitor hydroxyflutamide for 1.5 years, which yielded an flutamide-insensitive LNCaP subline, LNCaP-flu, as confirmed by MTT assays, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. We analyzed the differences in gene expression in LNCaP-flu cells and LNCaP cells using gene chips and follow-up RT-PCR. Over 2,428 genes were differentially expressed between these cell lines: 1,194 were down-regulated and 1,234 were up-regulated. Three genes in particular were considered related to the androgen-dependent transition: NCOR1, TIF2 (NCOA2), and ARA70 (NCOA4). There were no apparent changes in expression of the androgen receptor or prostate-specific antigen. ARs and associated coregulators play a central role in the flutamide-insensitive transition of prostate cancer cells. Although AR expression does not change during this transition, the change in AR coregulators may be a critical factor in the development of antiandrogen insensitivity.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

Hydroxyflutamide, ≥98% (HPLC)