Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Effects of repeated maternal oral exposure to low levels of trichlorfon on development and cytogenetic toxicity in 3-day mouse embryos.

PMID 21771630


Trichlorfon is a widely used broad-spectrum agricultural insecticide. Few studies have evaluated the effects of trichlorfon on developing fetuses, especially at early stages of development after low-level maternal exposures. In this study, we evaluated the direct effects of trichlorfon on preimplantation mouse embryos after 30days of maternal exposure (2, 10 and 50mg/kg/day) via drinking water. On gestation day 3 (dg3), blastocysts were collected and evaluated for changes in gross morphology; cell number; the presence of interphase, metaphase, micronuclei (MN) cells and fragmented and pycnotic nuclei. Embryos in the 50mg/kg/day group had a significantly reduced mean cell number per embryo. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the frequency of pycnotic nuclei and an absence of metaphase cells in the 50mg/kg/day treated group. None of the developmental endpoints evaluated were observed in the 2 and 10mg/kg/day trichlorfon-treated groups. A simultaneous decrease in the cell number and an increase in the frequencies of absent metaphases and pycnotic nuclei indicate that embryonic developmental deficits observed in the 50mg/kg/day exposure group were associated with cytotoxicity.

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Trichlorfon, PESTANAL®, analytical standard