Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP

Health risk assessment of environmental exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

PMID 2184469


In 1986 a survey was published by CEFIC on the occurrence of chlorinated solvents in ambient air, in surface water, and in ground water. The present article concentrates on 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-T), and puts into perspective the environmental occurrence and the toxicity. Critical toxicological data are briefly discussed. As no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of 1,1,1-T is apparent, the no-adverse-effect levels in chronic inhalation exposure in rats (875 ppm) and mice (1500 ppm) form the basis for the estimation of potential risk to human health. Environmental exposure to 1,1,1-T is mainly via the atmosphere (120 micrograms/day); the contributions of drinking water (2 micrograms/day) and food (3 micrograms/kg) are negligible. Safety margins are calculated by comparing the no-adverse-effect levels in rat and mouse studies with the total body burden. Safety margins are also calculated after converting no-adverse-effect levels into estimated internal dose levels by physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. Safety margins vary with the starting point, but are of the order of 10(5) for the general population and more than 10(4) for the population close to industrial activities. It may be concluded that the risk of a potential health effect resulting from environmental exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane is negligible.