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The Biochemical journal

Ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR)-like channels mediate MAMP-induced calcium influx in Arabidopsis thaliana.


PMID 21848515

Abstract

Binding of specific microbial epitopes [MAMPs (microbe-associated molecular patterns)] to PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) and subsequent receptor kinase activation are key steps in plant innate immunity. One of the earliest detectable events after MAMP perception is a rapid and transient rise in cytosolic Ca2+ levels. In plants, knowledge about the signalling events leading to Ca2+ influx and on the molecular identity of the channels involved is scarce. We used a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line stably expressing the luminescent aequorin Ca2+ biosensor to monitor pharmacological interference with Ca2+ signatures following treatment with the bacterial peptide MAMPs flg22 and elf18, and the fungal carbohydrate MAMP chitin. Using a comprehensive set of compounds known to impede Ca2+-transport processes in plants and animals we found strong evidence for a prominent role of amino acid-controlled Ca2+ fluxes, probably through iGluR (ionotropic glutamate receptor)-like channels. Interference with amino acid-mediated Ca2+ fluxes modulates MAMP-triggered MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) activity and affects MAMP-induced accumulation of defence gene transcripts. We conclude that the initiation of innate immune responses upon flg22, elf18 and chitin recognition involves apoplastic Ca2+ influx via iGluR-like channels.

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