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The journal of physical chemistry. B

Interaction of thioflavin T with amyloid fibrils: stoichiometry and affinity of dye binding, absorption spectra of bound dye.


PMID 21863870

Abstract

The fluorescence of the benzothiazole dye thioflavin T (ThT) is a well-known test for amyloid fibril formation. It has now become evident that ThT can also be used for structural investigations of amyloid fibrils and even for the treatment of amyloid diseases. In this case, one of the most urgent problems is an accurate determination of ThT-amyloid fibril binding parameters: the number of binding modes, stoichiometry, and binding constant for each mode. To obtain information concerning the ThT-amyloid fibril binding parameters, we propose to use absorption spectrophotometry of solutions prepared by equilibrium microdialysis. This approach is inherently designed for the determination of dye-receptor binding parameters. However, it has been very rarely used in the study of dye-protein interactions and has never been used to study the binding parameters of ThT or its analogues to amyloid fibrils. We showed that, when done in corpore, this approach enables the determination of not only binding parameters but also the absorption spectrum and molar extinction coefficient of ThT bound to sites of different binding modes. The proposed approach was used for the examination of lysozyme amyloid fibrils. Two binding modes were found for the ThT-lysozyme amyloid fibril interaction. These binding modes have significantly different binding constants (K(b1) = 7.5 × 10(6) M(-1), K(b2) = 5.6 × 10(4) M(-1)) and a different number of dye binding sites on the amyloid fibrils per protein molecule (n(1) = 0.11, n(2) = 0.24). The absorption spectra of ThT bound to sites of different modes differ from each other (ε(b1,max) = 5.1 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1), ε(b2,max) = 6.7 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1), λ(max) = 449 nm) and significantly differ from that of free ThT in aqueous solution (ε(max) = 3.2 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1), λ(max) = 412 nm).