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Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

In search of oligo(2-thienyl)-substituted pyridine derivatives: a modular approach to di-, tri- and tetra(2-thienyl)pyridines.


PMID 21898622

Abstract

Herein, we describe our attempts to systematically prepare a series of oligo(2-thienyl)-substituted pyridine derivatives. The crucial starting material, a β-alkoxy-β-ketoenamide, is easily available on a large scale by the reaction of lithiated methoxyallene with thiophene-2-carbonitrile and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid. This three-component reaction is followed by intramolecular cyclization to yield the suitably functionalized 2,6-di(2-thienyl)-substituted pyridine derivates. The two oxygen atoms allow the programmed activation of positions C-3, C-4, or C-5 of the pyridine ring to perform palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions with thiophene-2-boronic acid or 2-(tributylstannyl)thiophene, and alternatively, reductive removal of groups. With this concept, we were able to prepare five pyridine derivatives with 2-thienyl substituents in the 2,6-, 2,3,6-, 2,4,6-, 2,3,4,6-, and 2,3,5,6-positions. 2,3,4,5,6-Penta(2-thienyl)pyridine was not available with our methods. The UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra of all pyridines were recorded and showed a dependence on the substitution pattern and protonation state. For the protonated 2,3,5,6-tetra(2-thienyl)-substituted pyridine, a Stokes shift of about 180 nm with an emission at 515 nm was observed.

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