Analytical chemistry

Determining the effects of antioxidants on oxidative stress induced carbonylation of proteins.

PMID 21939227


There is potential that the pathological effects of oxidative stress (OS) associated diseases such as diabetes could be ameliorated with antioxidants, but this will require a clearer understanding of the pathway(s) by which proteins are damaged by OS. This study reports the development and use of methods that assess the efficacy of dietary antioxidant supplementation at a mechanistic level. Data reported here evaluate the impact of green tea supplementation on oxidative stress induced post-translational modifications (OSi-PTMs) in plasma proteins of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The mechanism of antioxidant protection was examined through both the type and amount of OSi-PTMs using mass spectrometry based identification and quantification. Carbonylated proteins in freshly drawn blood samples were derivatized with biotin hydrazide. Proteins thus biotinylated were selected from plasma samples of green tea fed diabetic rats and control animals by avidin affinity chromatography, further fractionated by reversed phase chromatography (RPC); fractions from the RPC column were tryptic digested, and the tryptic digest was fractionated by RPC before being identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Relative quantification of peptides bearing carbonylation sites was achieved for the first time by RPC-MS/MS using selective reaction monitoring (SRM). Seventeen carbonylated peptides were detected and quantified in both control and treated plasma. The relative concentration of eight was dramatically different between control and green tea treated animals. Seven of the OSi-PTM bearing peptides had dropped dramatically in concentration with treatment while one increased, indicating differential regulation of carbonylation by antioxidants. Green tea antioxidants were found to reduce carbonylation of proteins by lipid peroxidation end products most, followed by advanced glycation end products to a slightly lower extent. Direct oxidation of proteins by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was protected the least by green tea.