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International journal of molecular sciences

Solvolyses of benzoyl chlorides in weakly nucleophilic media.


PMID 21954326

Abstract

Rate constants and activations parameters are reported for solvolyses of p-Z-substituted benzoyl chlorides (1, Z = OMe, Me, H, and Cl) in 97% w/w hexafluoroisopropanol-water (97H). Additional kinetic data are reported for solvolyses in acetic and formic acids. Plots of log k vs. σ(p) in 97H are consistent with previous research showing that a cationic reaction channel is dominant, even for solvolyses of 1, Z = NO(2). A benzoyl cation intermediate was trapped by Friedel-Crafts reaction with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene in hexafluoroisopropanol. The results are explained by an S(N)2-S(N)1 spectrum of mechanisms with variations in nucleophilic solvent assistance. Ab initio calculations of heterolytic bond dissociation energies of various chloro- and fluoro-substituted and other benzoyl chlorides are correlated with log k for solvolyses.

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