Randomized, phase III study results of clobazam in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

PMID 21956725


To evaluate efficacy and safety of clobazam, a 1,5-benzodiazepine, as adjunctive therapy for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Patients aged 2-60 years were randomized to placebo or clobazam 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg/day. Study consisted of 4-week baseline, 3-week titration, and 12-week maintenance phases, followed by a 2- or 3-week taper or continuation in an open-label extension. Primary endpoint was percentage decrease in mean weekly drop seizure rates during maintenance vs baseline phases for modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population. Secondary outcomes included other seizure types, responder rates, and physicians' and caregivers' global assessments. A total of 305 patients were screened, 238 were randomized, and 217 composed the mITT population. Of patients enrolled after a protocol amendment, 125/157 (79.6%) completed. Average weekly drop seizure rates decreased 12.1% for placebo vs 41.2% (p = 0.0120), 49.4% (p = 0.0015), and 68.3% (p < 0.0001) for the clobazam 0.25-, 0.5-, and 1.0-mg/kg/day groups. Responder rates (≥50%) were 31.6% (placebo) vs 43.4% (p = 0.3383), 58.6% (p = 0.0159), and 77.6% (p < 0.0001) for clobazam 0.25-, 0.5-, and 1.0-mg/kg/day groups. Physicians' and caregivers' assessments indicated clobazam significantly improved symptoms. Somnolence, pyrexia, upper respiratory infections, and lethargy were the most frequent adverse events reported for clobazam. Clobazam significantly decreased weekly drop seizure rates in LGS. No new safety signals were identified. This study provides Class II evidence that clobazam as adjunctive therapy is efficacious, in a dosage-dependent manner, in reducing mean weekly drop seizure rates of patients with LGS over 12 weeks.

Related Materials