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Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

A novel particle sampling system for physico-chemical and toxicological characterization of emissions.


PMID 21960254

Abstract

Several studies have shown that combustion-derived fine particles cause adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies on combustion-derived fine particles have rarely involved multiple endpoints and a detailed characterization of chemical composition. In this study, we developed a novel particle sampling system for toxicological and chemical characterization (PSTC), consisting of the Dekati Gravimetric Impactor (DGI) and a porous tube diluter. Physico-chemical and toxicological properties of the particles emitted from various combustion sources were evaluated in two measurement campaigns. First, the DGI was compared with the High-Volume Cascade Impactor (HVCI) and to the Dekati Low-Pressure Impactor (DLPI), using the same dilution system and the same sampling conditions. Only small differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total particulate matter (PM), and particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1 um (PM(1)) concentrations and geometric mass mean diameters (GMMD) between these three impactors. Second, the PSTC was compared with the HVCI sampling system, which has been optimal for collection of particulate samples for toxicological and chemical analyses. Differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total PM and PM(1) emissions, and GMMDs, probably due to the different sampling and dilution methods as well as different sampling substrates which affected the behavior of semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds. However, no significant differences were detected in the in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity between the samples collected with the PSTC and the HVCI systems. In measurements of genotoxicity, significant differences between the two sampling systems were seen only with the particles emitted from the sauna stove. In conclusion, due to compact size, PSTC is an applicable method for use in particle sampling as part of the toxicological and chemical characterization of particulate emissions from different combustion sources. It offers some advantages compared to the previously used high-volume sampling methods including compactness for field measurements, simple preparation of sample substrates and high extraction efficiency.

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