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The Analyst

Detection of cortisol at a gold nanoparticle|Protein G-DTBP-scaffold modified electrochemical immunosensor.


PMID 22005508

Abstract

An ultrasensitive electrochemical immmunosensor was demonstrated to be capable of detecting the hormone cortisol down to concentrations as low as 16 pg mL(-1). In addition, the immunosensor displayed a sensitivity of 1.6 μA pg(-1) mL(-1) and a linear range up to ∼2500 pg mL(-1) of cortisol. This immunosensor was constructed based on a Au nanoparticle|dimethyl 3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate·2HCl (DTBP)-Protein G scaffold-modified Au electrode. In this work, the Au nanoparticles were used to increase the electrochemically active surface area by 28% (with a standard deviation of 3%) to enhance the quantity of the Protein G scaffold on the electrode. Thiolation of Protein G by DTBP aided in avoiding the confirmation change of Protein G, while this Protein G-DTBP component offered an orientation-controlled immobilisation of the capture antibody on the Au electrode. In this immunosensor, a monoclonal anti-cortisol capture antibody was optimally aligned by the scaffold before a competitive immunoassay between sample cortisol and a horseradish peroxidase-labelled cortisol conjugate was conducted. For quantitative analysis, square wave voltammetry was used to monitor the reduction current of benzoquinone produced from a horseradish peroxidase catalysed reaction. The improved analytical performance of our immunosensor was attributed to the synergetic effect of Au nanoparticles and the Protein G-DTBP scaffold.

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