The Analyst

MS2/TOF and LC-MS/TOF studies on toremifene to characterize its forced degradation products.

PMID 22013582


The present study was designed to characterize the possible degradation products of toremifene under varied conditions as prescribed by ICH guidelines Q1A(R2). The forced degradation studies were conducted on toremifene citrate under the conditions of hydrolysis (acidic, basic and neutral), photolysis, oxidation and dry heat. The drug was found unstable to photolysis and hydrolysis in water and acidic media but stable to alkaline hydrolysis, peroxide oxidation and thermal degradation. In total fifteen degradation products (I-XV) were formed, which were resolved from each other and the drug on a C-18 column employing an isocratic elution method. A complete mass fragmentation pattern of the drug was established with the help of LC/ESI-MS/TOF to assist characterization of the degradation products. Of the fifteen products, six products III, IV, VII, VIII, XIV and XV were detected in LC-MS. The molecular masses of III, IV, VII and VIII were found to be the same i.e., 387, while those of XIV and XV were 389 and 403, respectively. Structures of these products were elucidated through comparison of their mass fragmentation patterns with the drug, which were proposed on the basis of accurate masses of the parent and fragment ions. These were characterized as (Z)-2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-4-(4-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylbut-1-enyl)phenol (III), (E)-2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-4-(4-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylbut-1-enyl)phenol (IV), (E)-4-(4-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ol (VII), (Z)-4-(4-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ol (VIII), 2-(4-(10-(2-chloroethyl)phenanthren-9-yl)phenoxy)-N-methylethanamine (XIV), and 2-(4-(10-(2-chloroethyl)phenanthren-9-yl)phenoxy)-N,N-dimethylethanamine (XV). Finally, a most plausible mechanistic explanation for degradation of the drug in different chemical environments is also proposed. The results of the study disclose six new degradation related impurities of the drug.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

Toremifene citrate salt, ≥98% (HPLC)
C26H28ClNO · C6H8O7