The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology

Expression of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha and its responsive genes in human endometrium regulated by cholesterol sulfate.

PMID 22024429


Cholesterol sulfate (CS) is a major sterol sulfate in human plasma that is detected in the uterine endometrium. CS plays a role in steroidogenesis, cellular membrane stabilization, and regulation of the skin barrier. We previously reported that CS increased in rabbit endometrium during the implantation period. Recently, CS has been reported to be a ligand of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA). NR1D1 is one of the genes regulated by RORA. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of RORA and NR1D1 by CS in human endometrium. We determined the association-dissociation curves for the interaction of CS with RORA and the kinetic rates by surface plasmon resonance. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization revealed that RORA and NR1D1 were expressed in human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells. CS treatment significantly induced the mRNA expression of RORA and NR1D1 mRNA in ESCs. The results of a luciferase assay showed that RORA significantly activated the human NR1D1 promoter regardless of CS. Our results suggest that CS regulates the expression of RORA responsive genes in human endometrial cells but not as a ligand for RORA.

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Sodium cholesteryl sulfate