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Carbohydrate research

Study of the inhibition of two human maltase-glucoamylases catalytic domains by different α-glucosidase inhibitors.


PMID 22036121

Abstract

In humans, both the N-terminal catalytic domain (NtMGAM) and the C-terminal catalytic domain (CtMGAM) of small intestinal maltase glucoamylase (MGAM) are α-glycosidases that catalyze the hydrolysis of α-(1→4) glycosidic linkages in the process of starch digestion, and are considered to be the main therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. In this work, recombinant human CtMGAM has been cloned for the first time, and this, combined with the expression of NtMGAM in Pichia pastoris, made it possible for us to study the catalytic mechanism of MGAM in a well-defined system. The enzymatic kinetic assays of the two catalytic domains suggest that CtMGAM has the higher affinity for longer maltose oligosaccharides. Kinetic studies of commercially-available drugs such as 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), miglitol, voglibose, and acarbose along with a series of acarviosine-containing oligosaccharides we isolated from Streptomyces coelicoflavus against NtMGAM, CtMGAM, and human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA) provide us an overall profile of the inhibitory ability of these inhibitors. Of all the inhibitors used in this paper, DNJ was the most effective inhibitor against MGAM; the K(i) values for the two catalytic domains were 1.41 and 2.04 μM for NtMGAM and CtMGAM, respectively. Acarviostatins 2-03 and 3-03 were the best inhibitors against HPA with relatively high inhibitory activity against CtMGAM. The acarviostatins 2-03 and 3-03 inhibition constants, K(i), for HPA were 15 and 14.3 nM, and those for CtMGAM were 6.02 and 6.08 μM, respectively. These results suggest that NtMGAM and CtMGAM differ in their substrate specificities and inhibitor tolerance despite their structural relationship.

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