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Malaria journal

Variations of insecticide residual bio-efficacy on different types of walls: results from a community-based trial in south Cameroon.


PMID 22047173

Abstract

Determination of residual activity of insecticides is essential information for the selection of appropriate indoor spraying operation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the residual effect of three candidate insecticide formulations on different indoor surfaces in order to guide future interventions, in the context of Cameroon and other African countries. The study was conducted in the Ntougou neighbourhood in Yaoundé (capital city of Cameroon). Bendiocarb WP, lambda-cyhalothrin CS and deltamethrin WG were sprayed on the indoor wall surfaces of local cement, wood and mud houses. Their effects on the knockdown and mortality of the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s were assessed each month from March to September 2009, using the WHO plastic cones test. Knockdown and mortality rates were compared between different surfaces using Chi-square test. A Kaplan-Meir model was used to estimate the time of treatment failure. With bendiocarb WP, the knockdown rates were frequently above 98% during 13 weeks after spraying, except on mud walls where it significantly decreased at the 13th week (P < 0.05). With lambda cyhalothrin CS, the knockdown rates remained 100% on wood surfaces during the 26 weeks trial. However, it significantly decreased on concrete and mud surfaces from the 11th (83%) and the 20th (88%) weeks respectively (P < 0.05). With deltamethrin WG, it remained high on concrete surfaces during 26 weeks (> 98%); while it varied between 60 and 100% on wood or mud surfaces. The survival estimates of bendiocarb WP treatments remaining effective in killing An. gambiae s.s. (mortality rate ≥ 80%) was > 13 weeks on cement and wood surfaces and 13 weeks on mud surfaces. Those of lambda-cyhalothrin CS were > 26 weeks on wood surfaces, and 20 weeks on concrete and mud surfaces. By contrast, those of deltamethrin WG were 26 weeks on concrete, 20 weeks on mud surfaces and 15 weeks on wood surfaces. Current data suggest variable durations of spray cycles for each product, according to the type of wall surfaces, highlighting the importance of testing candidate products in local context before using them in large scale.

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