Levels and profiles of long-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk and infant formulas in East Asia.

PMID 22113060


In this study, 90 human breast milk samples collected from Japan, Korea, and China were analyzed for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (C8), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (C9), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (C10), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (C11), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) (C12), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) (C13). In addition, infant formulas (n = 9) obtained from retail stores in China and Japan were analyzed. PFOA was the predominant compound and was detected in more than 60% of samples in all three countries. The PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA levels in Japan were significantly higher than those in Korea and China (p<0.05). The PFTrDA level was highest in Korea (p<0.05). The median PFOA concentrations were 89 pg mL(-1) (48% of total perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C8-C13)) in Japan, 62 pg mL(-1) (54%) in Korea, and 51 pg mL(-1) (61%) in China. The remaining ∑PFCAs (C9-C13) were 95 pg mL(-1) in Japan, 52 pg mL(-1) in Korea, and 33 pg mL(-1) in China. Among the long-chain PFCAs, odd-numbered PFCAs were more frequently detected than even-numbered PFCAs, except for PFDA in Japan. There were no evident correlations between the mother's demographic factors and the PFCA concentrations. PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were frequently detected in both Japan and China, but there were no significant differences between the two countries. The total PFCA concentrations in the infant formulas were lower than those in the breast milk samples in Japan (p<0.05), but not in China (p>0.05). In conclusion, various PFCAs were detected in human breast milk samples from East Asian countries.

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Perfluorodecanoic acid, 98%