American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation

Comparison of calcium acetate and sevelamer on vascular function and fibroblast growth factor 23 in CKD patients: a randomized clinical trial.

PMID 22137672


Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a marker of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because previous studies suggested that sevelamer may exert effects on FGF-23 level and endothelial function independently of its phosphate-lowering action, we tested the effect of sevelamer versus calcium acetate on vascular function and FGF-23 levels. Randomized prospective open-label trial. Patients with stage 4 CKD with hyperphosphatemia (n = 100). An 8-week intervention with sevelamer (n = 47) and calcium acetate (n = 53). The primary study outcome was change in flow-mediated vasodilatation in the forearm. The secondary outcome was change in FGF-23 levels. Serum phosphate levels decreased in both treatment arms (P < 0.001), but more markedly in the sevelamer group (P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilatation increased from 6.1% to 7.1% (P < 0.001) in sevelamer-treated patients, whereas it was unchanged in the calcium-acetate group (6.0% vs 6.0%). In a combined analysis, treatment-induced changes in flow-mediated vasodilatation were (P < 0.001) associated with simultaneous changes in FGF-23 levels (-27.1% [-33.2% to -8.8%] for the sevelamer group; 3.5% [-8.4% to 12.1%] for the calcium acetate group), as well as with C-reactive protein and fetuin A levels. These relationships were confirmed in multiple regression analysis adjusting for changes in serum phosphate levels and other factors. Unblinded randomized controlled study that cannot establish mechanisms of effect. In hyperphosphatemic patients with stage 4 CKD, treatment with phosphate lowering induces measurable improvements in flow-mediated vasodilatation. Furthermore, independently of serum phosphate level, FGF-23 level changes induced by phosphate binders are associated with simultaneous changes in flow-mediated vasodilatation. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that FGF-23 may contribute to vascular dysfunction in this population.

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Calcium Acetate, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material