Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation

Macro- and microrheological parameters of blood in patients with cerebral and peripheral atherosclerosis: the molecular change mechanisms after pentoxifylline treatment.

PMID 22214714


This study was designed to evaluate hemorheological changes in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) after 4 weeks of pentoxifylline therapy as well as to study red blood cell microrheological variables after the cell incubation with pentoxifylline and some phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity inhibitors. The patients with CVD (n = 50) and PAD (n = 33) were treated with pentoxifylline (400 mg, thrice a day) for 4 weeks. Before and after drug therapy the hemorheological measurements including plasma and whole blood viscosity, red blood cell aggregation (RBCA) and deformability (RBCD) were completed. In vitro study RBCs were incubated with: 1) Vinpocetine--inhibitor PDE-1, 10 μM; 2) Rolipram--PDE-4, 10 μM; 3) Isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX)--nonselective PDE inhibitor, 100 μM and with pentoxifylline, 10 μM The cell incubation was performed at 37 °C for 15 min. There were the positive changes of hemorheological profile after 4 weeks of the pentoxifylline therapy both in CVD and PAD patients. The marked RBCD changes were observed after the in vitro cell pentoxifylline treatment as well. Perhaps it is connected with the inhibition of the phosphodiesterase activity in RBCs. An application of drugs and chemicals that can inhibit the PDE activity resulted in RBCD rise and RBCA decrease. The experiments with the use of selective PDE inhibitors have revealed the similar red cell deformability changes. Vinpocetine increased RBCD significantly (p < 0.05). PDE-4 inhibitor--Rolipram stimulated RBCD by 15% (p < 0.05). Some more effective was IBMX. After cell incubation with it a significant rise of the deformability (by 27%; p < 0.05) was found. All drugs, having PDE activity decreased RBCA, but the most pronounced effect had Vinpocetine (50%; p < 0.05). Thus, administered pentoxifylline, daily (1200 mg), during four weeks improves hemorheological profile and especially its microrheological part as well as the blood transport capacity in subjects with cerebral and peripheral vascular disorders. It is most probably red cell microrheological control mechanisms may be associated with the phosphodiesterase activity alterations.

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Vinpocetine, ≥98%, solid