EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

International journal of nanomedicine

Effect of heparan sulfate and gold nanoparticles on muscle development during embryogenesis.


PMID 22238506

Abstract

It was hypothesized that heparan sulfate (HS) as an essential compound for myogenesis and nanoparticles of gold (nano-Au) as highly reactive compounds can affect muscle development as a consequence of molecular regulation of muscle cell formation, and that these effects may be enhanced by a complex of HS conjugated with nano-Au. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of administration of nano-Au, HS, and a nano-Au+HS complex on the morphological and molecular characteristics of breast muscle during embryogenesis. Chicken embryos were used as in vivo model. Fertilized chicken eggs (n = 350) were randomly divided into the control group and the groups treated with nano-Au, HS, and nano-Au+HS. The experimental solutions were given in ovo on the first day of incubation and the embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The methods included biochemical indices in blood, immunohistochemistry, microscopy (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, confocal), and gene expression at the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels. The treatments did not adversely affect mortality, organ weight, and homeostasis of the embryos. HS stimulated the development and maturation of breast muscle by increasing the number of nuclei, satellite cells, and muscle fibers and affected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and paired-box transcription factor-7. Furthermore, the nano-Au+HS complex contributed to the increased number of myocytes and nuclei in chicken embryo muscles. The results indicate that the administration of HS and nano-Au affects muscle development and that this effect is enhanced by conjugating HS with nano-Au.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

A7511
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, essentially fatty acid free, ≥97% (agarose gel electrophoresis), 1X Crystallized
A9430
Bovine Serum Albumin, heat shock fraction, low endotoxin, pH 7, ≥98%
A2934
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, essentially globulin free, low endotoxin, ≥98% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
B6917
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, suitable for (for molecular biology), Non-acetylated
A3156
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, γ-irradiated, Globulin Free, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
A9543
Bovine Serum Albumin, heat shock fraction, low endotoxin, pH 7, ≥98%
A9056
Bovine Serum Albumin, heat shock fraction, microbiologically tested, ≥96% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
A9085
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, essentially IgG free, ≥96% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
A7517
Bovine Serum Albumin, For use as a marker in SDS-PAGE
A8654
Bovine Serum Albumin, dimer mol wt ~132 kDa
A3733
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, ≥98% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
A3983
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, essentially γ-globulin free, ≥98% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
A3608
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, ≥96% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
A3858
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, Protease, essentially free, ≥98% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
A4737
Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, protease, essentially free, ≥98% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
ERMDA471IFCC Human serum (cystatin C), ERM® certified Reference Material
P5368 Phosphate buffered saline, BioPerformance Certified, pH 7.4
P5493 Phosphate buffered saline, 10× concentrate, BioPerformance Certified, suitable for cell culture
79383 Phosphate buffered saline, BioUltra, washing buffer for peroxidase conjugates in Western Blotting, 10x concentrate
P3813 Phosphate buffered saline, powder, pH 7.4, for preparing 1 L solutions
79378 Phosphate buffered saline, BioUltra, solution
P5119 Phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2 (25 °C)
P3744 Phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.6 (25 °C)
P4244 Phosphate buffered saline, Autoclaved, pH 7.2 (25 °C)
P3688 Phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4, contains BSA, powder
P4739 Phosphate buffered saline, with 5% nonfat milk, powder (dry milled), pH 7.3
08057 Phosphate buffered saline, BioUltra, pH 7.4 ( in solution), contains TWEEN 20, tablet
P38135 Phosphate buffered saline, powder, pH 7.4, for preparing 5 L solutions
P7059 Phosphate Buffered Saline, 10× PBS for Western blots and IP
P3563 Phosphate Buffered Saline with 0.05% TWEEN® 20, pH 7.4