Journal of virology

An RNA interference screen identifies the Deubiquitinase STAMBPL1 as a critical regulator of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax nuclear export and NF-κB activation.

PMID 22258247


The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoprotein actively shuttles between the nucleus, where it interacts with transcriptional and splicing regulatory proteins, and the cytoplasm, where it activates NF-κB. Posttranslational modifications of Tax such as ubiquitination regulate its subcellular localization and hence its function; however, the regulation of Tax trafficking and NF-κB activation by host factors is poorly understood. By screening a deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme small interfering RNA (siRNA) library, we identified the metalloprotease STAM-binding protein-like 1 (STAMBPL1) as a positive regulator of Tax-mediated NF-κB activation. Overexpression of wild-type STAMBPL1, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, enhanced Tax-mediated NF-κB activation, whereas silencing of STAMBPL1 with siRNA impaired Tax activation of both the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways. STAMBPL1 regulated Tax-induced NF-κB signaling indirectly by controlling Tax nuclear/cytoplasmic transport and was required for DNA damage-induced Tax nuclear export. Together, these results reveal that the deubiquitinase STAMBPL1 is a key regulator of Tax trafficking and function.

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