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Ultrasonics sonochemistry

An ammonium sulfate/ethanol aqueous two-phase system combined with ultrasonication for the separation and purification of lithospermic acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.


PMID 22265019

Abstract

We studied the effect of ultrasonication extraction technology combined with ammonium sulfate/ethanol aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the separation of lithospermic acid B (LAB) from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. According to the literature and preliminary studies, ammonium sulfate concentration, ethanol concentration, pH, ultrasonication power, ultrasonication time and the ratio of solvent-to-solid were investigated using a single factor design to identify the factors affecting separation. Taking into consideration a simultaneous increase in LAB recovery (R (%)) and partition coefficient (K), the best performance of the ATPS was obtained at 25°C and pH 2 using ammonium sulfate 22% (w/w) and ethanol 30% (w/w). To keep the solvent-to-solid ratio at 10, response surface methodology was used to find the optimal ultrasonication power and ultrasonication time. Quadratic models were predicted for LAB yield in the upper phase. Optimal conditions of 572.1 W ultrasonication power and 42.2 min produced a maximum yield of LAB of 42.16 mg g(-1) sample. There was no obvious degradation of LAB with ultrasound under the applied conditions, and the experimental yield of LAB was 42.49 mg g(-1) sample and the purity was 55.28% (w/w), which was much higher than that obtained using conventional extraction. The present study demonstrated that ultrasound coupled with aqueous two-phase systems is very efficient tool for the extraction and purification of LAB from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

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