Japanese journal of infectious diseases

Oxacillin or cefalotin treatment of hospitalized children with cellulitis.

PMID 22274151


Cellulitis is an important cause of hospitalization in pediatrics. Because Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen of cellulitis, medicinal therapeutics should take the changing resistance profile of this organism into consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the progression and outcomes of children hospitalized for cellulitis and treated with oxacillin or cefalotin. This retrospective cohort study enrolled 218 children, hospitalized between 2001 and 2008 in Salvador, Northeast Brazil. All were diagnosed with cellulitis and treated with oxacillin or cefalotin (≥100 mg/kg/day). The median age was 2 years and 56.9% were males. Frequencies of signs and symptoms used in the clinical diagnoses were as follows: swelling (91.3%), redness (81.7%), warmth (47.2%), and tenderness (31.7%). All patients were discharged due to clinical recovery and the mean length of hospitalization was 7 ± 4 days. None of the patients died, needed intensive care, or had sequelae. By comparing the daily frequency of clinical findings during hospitalization, significant decreases were found in the frequencies of fever (admission day [42.2%], first day [20.8%], second day [12.9%], third day [8.3%], fourth day [6.1%]), toxemia, irritability, somnolence, vomiting, tachycardia, and need for intravenous hydration. In conclusion, oxacillin or cefalotin remain the drugs of choice for treating uncomplicated cellulitis in regions where community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus is infrequent (<10%).

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