Oncology reports

Chlorophyllin e4 is a novel photosensitizer against human bladder cancer cells.

PMID 22294235


The aim of the study was to investigate the photodynamic effect of the novel photosensitizer chlorophyllin e4 against human bladder cancer cells. T24 and 5637 bladder cancer cell lines were incubated with chlorophyllin e4 and irradiated with a 650-nm laser light. The controls included cells treated with chlorophyllin e4 but without light as well as cells exposed to laser light without chlorophyllin e4. Photocytotoxicity was monitored with MTT assay and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. In addition, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the subcellular localization of chlorophyllin e4. Chlorophyllin e4 exhibited significant photocytotoxicity in both T24 and 5637 cells, which resulted in a maximum of 82.43 and 85.06% cell death, respectively. Treatment with chlorophyllin e4 or laser light alone did not induce cytotoxicity. In addition, chlorophyllin e4-mediated PDT induced a significantly higher percentage of apoptosis in T24 and 5637 cells compared to the control groups (p<0.01). Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that chlorophyllin e4 co-localized with mitochondria in both cell lines. In conclusion, the remarkable photocytotoxicity, natural abundance and inexpensive composition of chlorophyllin e4 suggest that this compound may be a novel, effective photosensitizer for the treatment of human superficial bladder cancer.

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Chlorophyllin sodium copper salt, commercial grade