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Urological research

Effect of Costus igneus stem extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in albino rats.


PMID 22298189

Abstract

The effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Costus igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol on calcium oxalate urolithiasis have been studied in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and oxalate. The increased deposition of stone-forming constituents in the urine, serum, and kidney homogenate of urolithic rats was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered by treatment using aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. igneus (stem), and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol. The calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the kidney was significantly greater in ethylene glycol-induced urolithic rats. After administration of aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus, the deposition of calcium and oxalate was significantly lowered. Treatment with lupeol and stigmasterol significantly reduced the deposition of calcium and oxalate in the kidney, and also in the blood serum; the lipid profile serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 50 and 100 mg/kg were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in urolithiatic rats. From this study, we conclude that both the treatments with aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol had an inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate urinary stone. Lupeol and stigmasterol were identified from the stem of C. igneus by high-performance thin layer chromatography technique. The isolated compounds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (13)C NMR spectra.

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