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Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids

Femtosecond to second studies of a water-soluble porphyrin derivative in chemical and biological nanocavities.


PMID 22324339

Abstract

The interactions of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin (TSPP) with a quaternary ammonium modified β-cyclodextrin (QA-β-CD) and human serum albumin (HSA) protein in aqueous solutions at pH 7 were studied using steady-state, stopped-flow, and femtosecond to millisecond spectroscopy. TSPP forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with QA-β-CD (K(1) = 1.9 × 10(5) M(-1) and K(2) = 7 × 10(3) M(-1)) at 293 K, whereas with the HSA protein only 1:1 complex (K(1) = 1.7 × 10(6) M(-1)) has been found. The chemical and biological nanocavities have notable effects on the fluorescence lifetimes of the Q(x) state (from 9.3 to 11.1 ns in QA-β-CD and 11.6 ns in HSA). Furthermore, the rotational times (400 ps for the free TSPP, 1.6 and 19 ns for QA-β-CD and HSA protein complexes, respectively) clearly indicate the robustness of the formed entities. The confined environment does not affect much the fs dynamics (0.1-0.2 ps) of the encapsulated molecule. However, it clearly affect the ps one (1-2 ps (H(2)O) and 5-10 ps (QA-β-CD and HSA)). The effect of O(2) on the relaxation of the triplet state of the free and encapsulated TSPP is also studied and the obtained results are discussed in light of the shielding effect provided by the chemical and biological cavities. The observed difference, longer triplet lifetime upon encapsulation, might be relevant to the efficiency of this porphyrin in photodynamic therapy. The presteady-state kinetics of the TSPP:HSA has been studied by the stopped-flow spectrometer, and a two-step model was proposed for the complexation processes. The results show the importance of the initial association step for the overall ligand recognition process. This first step occurs with rate constant of ~4 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which is about 5 orders of magnitude larger than the rate constant of the consecutive relaxation processes. We believe that our observations of molecular interaction between TSPP, QA-β-CD, and HSA protein from femtosecond to second at both ground and electronically first excited state give detailed information to improve our understanding of this kind of system and thus for a better design of drug delivery nanocarriers.