A novel adjuvant, mixture of alum and the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol, elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses for heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium vaccine.

PMID 22342704


To determine the efficacy of the mixture of propranolol (PRP), a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and alum, as a new adjuvant, in the induction of humoral and cellular immunity in response to heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) (HKST) as a model vaccine. BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. Mice in the experimental groups received either the HKST vaccine alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, PRP or the alum-PRP mixture. Mice in the negative control group received phosphate-buffered saline. All mice were immunized two times on days 0 and 14. Two weeks after the last immunization, immune responses to S. typhimurium were assessed. Administration of the alum-PRP mixture as an adjuvant increased the ability of the HKST vaccine to enhance lymphocyte proliferation, shifted the immune response towards a T-helper (Th) 1 pattern and increased S. typhimurium specific IgG, IgG2a and IgG1. This resulted in improved protective immunity against S. typhimurium. Administration of the alum-PRP mixture as an adjuvant in combination with the HKST vaccine, can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity and shift the immune responses to a Th1 pattern.