Pest management science

Influence of storage approaches on instability of propiconazole resistance in Monilinia fructicola.

PMID 22345072


The long-term preservation of interesting phenotypes in plant pathogenic fungi allows for follow-up studies in the future. Twelve storage approaches were investigated to determine their effects on instability of propiconazole resistance for three demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide-resistant and two DMI-sensitive isolates of Monilinia fructicola. They included mycelium in PDA slants under mineral oil, in PDA plugs under 10% glycerol, on dried filter paper and conidia on silica gel, each stored for 36 weeks at 4, - 20, and - 80 °C. None of the storage approaches prevented the rapid decline of EC(50) values for propiconazole in the three resistant isolates, and no significant differences were found among storage approaches (P = 0.787) or between storage approaches and consecutive transfers (P = 0.053). Most of the decline in resistance occurred during the first 4 weeks of storage. The DMI resistance-associated genetic element Mona, located in the immediate upstream region of the MfCYP51 gene, was still present in the three resistant isolates after 36 weeks of storage and weekly transfers. Furthermore, the Mona element and a portion of the MfCYP51 gene, which encodes the target enzyme for DMIs, did not reveal signs of DNA methylation. Resistance to propiconazole was partially regained in resistant isolates after two growth cycles on fresh peach fruit. Obtained data indicate that the decline of DMI resistance in M. fructicola cannot be prevented using commonly employed storage methods at various temperatures. The number of consecutive transfers and the storage duration prior to fungicide sensitivity tests in M. fructicola should be indicated in scientific papers.