Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

Effect of chronic exposure to pendimethalin on the susceptibility of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss L., to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

PMID 22361216


In this study, the in vivo effects of chronic pollution by the active substance (AS) pendimethalin, a dinitroaniline herbicide, on the susceptibility of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss L., to an experimental challenge with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were assessed. After four weeks of exposure to fresh water (C group) or 500 ng L(-1) of AS (P500 group), the fish were challenged by immersion in water containing 10(4) TCID(50) mL(-1) of VHSV. While exposure to pendimethalin was maintained throughout the experiment, mortalities were recorded during the 40 days post-infection (dpi) and organs were collected from dead fish for virological examination. At the end of the experiment, anti-VHSV antibodies and the classical pathway of complement activity were assessed in trout plasma. Exposure to pendimethalin significantly affected the distribution of cumulative mortality accelerating death in fish infected by VHSV. Pendimethalin appeared to decrease the Mean Time to Death (MTD) after virus treatment from 14.9 days (C-VHSV) to 10.2 days (P500-VHSV). Nevertheless, by the end of the experiment, differences in cumulative mortality were no longer observed between the two groups, which had reached the same stage (50 percent). Furthermore, a higher concentration of the virus was recovered from the pools of organs from the P500-VHSV group than the C-VHSV group. Moreover, at 40 dpi, although no significant difference was observed in the immune response between the two groups, more fish in the P500-VHSV group had set up an immune response by secreting antibodies than in the control viral group (C-VSHV).