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Trends in biotechnology

Applications of functionalized and nanoparticle-modified nanocrystalline cellulose.


PMID 22405283

Abstract

Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), a rod-shaped nanoscale material with exceptional strength and physicochemical properties, can be prepared from inexpensive renewable biomass. Besides its potential use as a reinforcing agent for industrial biocomposites, pristine NCC exhibits low toxicity and poses no serious environmental concerns, providing impetus for its use in bioapplications. Here, we review recent developments in the use of modified NCC for emerging bioapplications, specifically enzyme immobilization, antimicrobial and medical materials, green catalysis, biosensing and controlled drug delivery. We focus on the modification of NCC with chemical functionalities and inorganic nanoparticles, reviewing practical considerations such as reusability, toxicity and scale-up capability.