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Journal of biomedical science

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase plays an important role in intermittent hypoxia-induced cell death in rat cerebellar granule cells.


PMID 22405498

Abstract

Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH). Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH was created by culturing the cerebellar granule cells in the incubators with oscillating O2 concentration at 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1-4 days. The results of this study are based on image analysis using a confocal microscope and associated software. Cellular oxidative stress increased with increase in IH. In addition, the occurrence of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) increased as the duration of IH increased, but decreased in the presence of an iron chelator (phenanthroline) or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors [3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) and DPQ]. The fluorescence of caspase-3 remained the same regardless of the duration of IH, and Western blots did not detect activation of caspase-3. However, IH increased the ratio of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation to the nucleus, while PARP inhibitors (3-AB) reduced this ratio. According to our findings, IH increased oxidative stress and subsequently leading to cell death. This effect was at least partially mediated by PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, calpain activation leading to AIF translocation to the nucleus. We suggest that IH induces cell death in rat primary cerebellar granule cells by stimulating oxidative stress PARP-mediated calpain and AIF activation.

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