Journal of food science

Survey of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commercial honey of different floral origin.

PMID 22417585


In this study we conducted a survey of the concentrations of the major 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in 40 commercial honey samples from 12 different floral origins. 3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG), glyoxal (GO), and methylglyoxal (MGO) were measured, using their corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analytical performance of the HPLC method for the analysis of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds was evaluated in terms of linearity, limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), and precision. Linearity over 2 orders of magnitude, LODs (0.01-0.04 mg/kg), and LOQs (0.03-0.12 mg/kg) were calculated. Instrumental precision, as measured by the repeatability relative standard deviation% (RSDr%), was found to be between 0.22% and 0.55%. Furthermore, the concentrations of factors GO and MGO with respect to 3-DG were also calculated for rapid quantification in honey. In honey samples, the concentrations of 3-DG ranged from 75.9 to 808.6 mg/kg and were significantly higher (up to 100-fold) than those of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Values for GO and MGO were 0.1-10.9 and 0.2-2.9 mg/kg, respectively. The chemical characteristics that most influenced the levels of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in honey were found to be pH and total phenols. This was supported by multivariate analysis used to classify different honey types with respect to their chemical characteristics. In addition, both dicarbonyls and phenols are believed to contribute to the development of the final color of honey.

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3-Deoxyglucosone, ≥75% (TLC)