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Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN

Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: phenotype-genotype correlation and outcome in 32 patients with CLDN16 or CLDN19 mutations.


PMID 22422540

Abstract

Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disease. It is caused by mutations in CLDN16 and CLDN19, encoding claudin-16 and -19, respectively. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is usually complicated by progressive CKD. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and genetic features of familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis and analyze phenotype-genotype associations in patients with CLDN16 or CLDN19 mutations. Data from 32 genetically confirmed patients (9 patients with CLDN16 and 23 patients with CLDN19 mutations) from 26 unrelated families were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was based on clinical criteria at a median age of 9.5 years and confirmed by genetic testing at a median age of 15.5 years. In total, 13 CLDN16 or CLDN19 mutations were identified, including 8 novel mutations. A founder effect was detected for the recurrent CLDN16 p.Ala139Val mutation in North African families and the CLDN19 p.Gly20Asp mutation in Spanish and French families. CKD was more frequently observed in patients with CLDN19 mutations: survival without CKD or ESRD was 56% at 20 years of age in CLDN19 versus 100% in CLDN16 mutations (log rank P<0.01). Ocular abnormalities were observed in 91% of patients with CLDN19 mutations and none of the patients with CLDN16 mutations (P<0.01). Treatments seem to have no effect on hypercalciuria and CKD progression. Patients with CLDN19 mutations may display more severe renal impairment than patients with CLDN16 mutations. Ocular abnormalities were observed only in patients with CLDN19 mutations.