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Contraception

Evaluation of the effects of rifampicin, ketoconazole and erythromycin on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the components of a novel oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest in healthy postmenopausal women.


PMID 22445438

Abstract

We evaluated the effects of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) induction and inhibition on steady-state pharmacokinetics of the components of a novel oral contraceptive (OC) containing estradiol valerate (E₂V) and dienogest (DNG). CYP3A4 induction was assessed in an open-label, one-arm study. Sixteen healthy postmenopausal women received E₂V 2 mg/DNG 3 mg (days 1-17) and concomitant rifampicin (600 mg, days 12-16). Ratios of the area under the serum concentration-time curve between 0 and 24 h [AUC(0-24 h)] and maximum serum concentration (C(max)) of E₂ and DNG on days 17 and 11 (after and before rifampicin intervention) are presented. CYP3A4 inhibition was investigated in an open-label, parallel-group study in 24 healthy postmenopausal women receiving E₂V 2 mg/DNG 3 mg (days 1-14) and concomitant ketoconazole (400 mg, n=12) or erythromycin (500 mg three times daily, n=12) on days 8-14. Mean ratios of AUC(0-24 h) and C(max) of E₂ and DNG on days 7 and 14 are presented. Concomitant administration of rifampicin decreased systemic drug exposure and yielded geometric mean ratios for E₂C(max) and AUC(0-24 h) of 75% and 56%, respectively. Corresponding mean ratios for DNG were 48% and 17%, respectively. Ketoconazole coadministration increased systemic drug exposure and yielded ratios of E₂ of 165% and 157%, respectively, and ratios of DNG of 194% and 286%, respectively. Erythromycin coadministration also resulted in increased mean C(max) and AUC(0-24 h) of both E₂ and DNG. Geometric mean ratios of C(max) and AUC(0-24 h) for E₂ were 151% and 133%, respectively. Corresponding ratios for DNG were 133% and 162%, respectively. Significant drug-drug interactions are apparent when CYP3A4 modulators are coadministered with the components of a novel OC containing E₂V/DNG. Coadministration of CYP3A4 modulators should be avoided where possible, and another type of contraception should be used when coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers like rifampicin is unavoidable.

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