Urinary concentrations of organophosphorus insecticide metabolites in Japanese workers.

PMID 22455950


A recent development in analytical chemistry has enabled us to monitor systemic organophosphorus insecticide (OP) exposure at individual levels. At present, however, limited data are currently available on urinary OP metabolite levels worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) concentrations in Japanese workers. Urine samples were collected in both summer and winter from 339 Japanese adults who worked as food distributors (FDs, n=164), apple farmers (AFs, n=147) and pest control operators (PCOs, n=28). DAPs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization with pentafluorobenzylbromide. Dimethylphosphate (DMP), diethylphosphate (DEP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) were detected in the urine of over 87% of the studied populations in both seasons. The geometric mean values of total DAPs (nmol g(-1) creatinine), DMP, DMTP, DEP and DETP (μg g(-1) creatinine) in summer and winter were 106.7 and 98.3, 7.0 and 3.8, 3.4 and 4.5, 0.8 and 1.5, and 0.3 and 0.2 for the FDs, 440.8 and 197.7, 33.1 and 10.8, 10.1 and 5.8, 4.2 and 4.7 and 1.6 and 0.8 for the AFs, and 473.4 and 284.6, 28.9 and 22.2, 17.6 and 4.6, 3.5 and 4.4, and 0.5 and 0.6 for the PCOs, respectively, thereby revealing significantly higher concentrations in AFs and PCOs groups than in the FDs in both seasons except for winter DMTP. These DAP concentrations were approximately the same or at lower levels compared with those reported in the previous literature. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate urinary DAP concentrations in Japanese adults.

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2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl bromide, 99%