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Neurotoxicology

Differential state-dependent modification of inactivation-deficient Nav1.6 sodium channels by the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, tefluthrin and deltamethrin.


PMID 22465659

Abstract

Pyrethroid insecticides disrupt nerve function by modifying the gating kinetics of transitions between the conducting and nonconducting states of voltage-gated sodium channels. Pyrethroids modify rat Na(v)1.6+β1+β2 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes in both the resting state and in one or more states that require channel activation by repeated depolarization. The state dependence of modification depends on the pyrethroid examined: deltamethrin modification requires repeated channel activation, tefluthrin modification is significantly enhanced by repeated channel activation, and S-bioallethrin modification is unaffected by repeated activation. Use-dependent modification by deltamethrin and tefluthrin implies that these compounds bind preferentially to open channels. We constructed the rat Na(v)1.6Q3 cDNA, which contained the IFM/QQQ mutation in the inactivation gate domain that prevents fast inactivation and results in a persistently open channel. We expressed Na(v)1.6Q3+β1+β2 sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and assessed the modification of open channels by pyrethroids by determining the effect of depolarizing pulse length on the normalized conductance of the pyrethroid-induced sodium tail current. Deltamethrin caused little modification of Na(v)1.6Q3 following short (10ms) depolarizations, but prolonged depolarizations (up to 150ms) caused a progressive increase in channel modification measured as an increase in the conductance of the pyrethroid-induced sodium tail current. Modification by tefluthrin was clearly detectable following short depolarizations and was increased by long depolarizations. By contrast modification by S-bioallethrin following short depolarizations was not altered by prolonged depolarization. These studies provide direct evidence for the preferential binding of deltamethrin and tefluthrin (but not S-bioallethrin) to Na(v)1.6Q3 channels in the open state and imply that the pyrethroid receptor of resting and open channels occupies different conformations that exhibit distinct structure-activity relationships.