Clinical transplantation

Atovaquone versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis following renal transplantation.

PMID 22487221


Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is considered the prophylactic agent-of-choice. Some patients require an alternative owing to TMP-SMZ intolerance. This is the first evaluation of full-dose atovaquone vs. TMP-SMZ for PCP prevention in RTR. One hundred and eighty-five RTR were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective analysis. Patients received either single-strength TMP-SMZ daily (group I; n = 160) or 1500 mg/d of atovaquone and of a fluoroquinolone for one month (group II; n = 25). The primary endpoint was the incidence of PCP at 12 months post-transplant. There were no cases of PCP in either group. There were comparable rates of infections from bacterial pathogens and cytomegalovirus, but rates of BK viremia were significantly higher in group I (22.5%) vs. group II (4%; p = 0.03). The incidence of leukopenia was similar in both groups. Higher mean potassium levels were seen in group I at three months post-transplant but were comparable at all other time points. The need for dose reduction and/or premature discontinuation of therapy secondary to adverse events was more prevalent in TMP-SMZ-treated patients. In our experience, atovaquone appears to be effective in preventing PCP post-renal transplant and also demonstrates good tolerability.

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Atovaquone, ≥98% (HPLC)