Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA

Isatin-3-N4-benzilthiosemicarbazone, a non-toxic thiosemicarbazone derivative, protects and reactivates rat and human cholinesterases inhibited by methamidophos in vitro and in silico.

PMID 22542756


Organophosphates (OPs), which are widely used as pesticides, are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The inactivation of AChE results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, causing a cholinergic crisis that can lead to death. The classical treatment for OP poisoning is administration of oximes, but these compounds are ineffective in some cases. Here we determined whether the new compound isatin-3-N(4)-benzilthiosemicarbazone (IBTC), which in our previous study proved to be an antioxidant and antiatherogenic molecule, could protect and reactivate AChE and BChE. Toxicity of IBTC after subcutaneous injection in mice was measured using assays for oxidized diclorofluoresceine (DCF), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels, and catalase (CAT), sodium potassium (Na(+)/K(+)) ATPase, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) enzyme activities. The cytotoxicity was evaluated and the enzymatic activity of cholinesterase was measured in human blood samples. Molecular docking was used to predict the mechanism of IBTC interactions with the AChE active site. We found that IBTC did not increase the amount of DCF-RS or TBARS, did not reduce NPSH levels, and did not increase CAT, (Na(+)/K(+)) ATPase, ALA-D, or GPx activities. IBTC protected and reactivated both AChE and BChE activities. Molecular docking predicted that IBTC is positioned at the peripheral anionic site and in the acyl binding pocket of AChE and can interact with methamidophos, releasing the enzyme's active site. Our results suggest that IBTC, besides being an antioxidant and a promising antiatherogenic agent, is a non-toxic molecule for methamidophos poisoning treatment.

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