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Toxicologic pathology

Evidence for the nitric oxide pathway as a potential mode of action in fenoldopam-induced vascular injury.


PMID 22549976

Abstract

Fenoldopam, a dopaminergic DA1 agonist, induces vasodilatation via nitric oxide (NO), and this may be associated with mesenteric arterial injury. NO is produced from the enzymatic action of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is regulated by the shear-stress mediating protein caveolin-1. Profound vasodilatation and accompanied decreased shear are early events that could initiate vascular injury. Therefore, it is of interest to determine the role of caveolin-1 and the NO pathway in fenoldopam-induced vascular injury. At sites of fenoldopam-induced mesenteric arterial injury, decreased caveolin-1 expression and apoptosis were prominent immunohistochemical findings. An additional finding at these sites of injury were loss and/or reduced expression of caveolin-1 regulated structural proteins, connexin-43, (gap junction) ZO-1, and claudin (tight junctions). Because functional loss of caveolin-1 is associated with increased NOS activity and vasodilatation via NO, studies were conducted to show a NO donor produced vascular lesions in the mesenteric arteries morphologically similar to those induced by fenoldopam. Moreover, the incidence and severity of fenoldopam-induced vascular injury were reduced when an NOS inhibitor or a scavenger of NO-generated free radicals were coadministered with fenoldopam. Collectively, these data suggest that caveolin-1 and its regulated NO pathway may play an important role in vasodilatory drug-induced vascular injury.

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