Journal of microbiology and biotechnology

Effect of ginsenoside Re on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and cognition memory deficit induced by repeated immobilization in rats.

PMID 22561867


In this study, we assessed the effects of ginsenoside Re (GRe) administration on repeated immobilization stressinduced behavioral alterations using the forced swimming test (FST), the elevated plus maze (EPM), and the active avoidance conditioning test (AAT). Additionally, we examined the effect of GRe on the central adrenergic system by observing changes in neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the rat brain. Male rats received 10, 20, or 50 mg/kg GRe (i.p.) 30 min before daily exposures to repeated immobilization stress (2 h/day) for 10 days. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to repeated immobilization was confirmed by measuring serum levels of corticosterone (CORT) and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus. Repeated immobilization stress increased immobility in the FST and reduced openarm exploration in the EPM test. It also increased the probability of escape failures in the AAT test, indicating a reduced avoidance response. Daily administration of GRe during the repeated immobilization stress period significantly inhibited the stress-induced behavioral deficits in these behavioral tests. Administration of GRe also significantly blocked the increase in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and the decrease in BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Taken together, these findings indicate that administration of GRe prior to immobilization stress significantly improved helpless behaviors and cognitive impairment, possibly through modulating the central noradrenergic system in rats. These findings suggest that GRe may be a useful agent for treating complex symptoms of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment.

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Ginsenoside Re, primary reference standard