International journal of dental hygiene

The effect of an oxygenating agent on chlorhexidine-induced extrinsic tooth staining: a systematic review.

PMID 22594687


Although chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) is currently the most effective mouthwash for reducing plaque and gingivitis, one of its side effects is extrinsic tooth staining. Interestingly, oxygenating agents may reduce this staining. The aim of this review was to systematically search the literature for data concerning the inhibiting effect of an oxygenating agent (OA) on CHX-induced tooth staining. MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE and other relevant electronic databases were searched for articles that were published up to November 2011. Articles were included if they were randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials conducted with healthy subjects ≥ 16 years of age that compared the effects of CHX mouthrinse combined with an OA with the effects of CHX alone. An independent screening of 1183 titles and abstracts resulted in 4 publications that met the inclusion criteria. The extracted data allowed meta-analyses of intermediate length studies and showed that combining an OA with CHX mouthrinses led to a significant reduction in tooth staining (mean difference: 0.27; P = 0.02) and plaque scores (mean difference: 0.10; P = 0.003) when compared with CHX alone. One of the included studies reported a side effect for one participant. The present review was limited by the availability of data, and the included studies were methodologically and clinically heterogeneous, which affected the quality and interpretation of the evidence. There is moderate evidence that a combination of CHX and an OA reduces tooth staining without interfering with plaque growth inhibition.

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Chlorhexidine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material