Plant cell reports

An efficient and high-throughput protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation based on phosphomannose isomerase positive selection in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.).

PMID 22610504


A number of Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation systems have been developed and widely used in numerous laboratories and research institutes. However, those systems generally employ antibiotics like kanamycin and hygromycin, or herbicide as selectable agents, and are used for the small-scale experiments. To address high-throughput production of transgenic rice plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and to eliminate public concern on antibiotic markers, we developed a comprehensive efficient protocol, covering from explant preparation to the acquisition of low copy events by real-time PCR analysis before transplant to field, for high-throughput production of transgenic plants of Japonica rice varieties Wanjing97 and Nipponbare using Escherichia coli phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker. The transformation frequencies (TF) of Wanjing97 and Nipponbare were achieved as high as 54.8 and 47.5%, respectively, in one round of selection of 7.5 or 12.5 g/L mannose appended with 5 g/L sucrose. High-throughput transformation from inoculation to transplant of low copy events was accomplished within 55-60 days. Moreover, the Taqman assay data from a large number of transformants showed 45.2% in Wanjing97 and 31.5% in Nipponbare as a low copy rate, and the transformants are fertile and follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. This protocol facilitates us to perform genome-wide functional annotation of the open reading frames and utilization of the agronomically important genes in rice under a reduced public concern on selectable markers. We describe a comprehensive protocol for large scale production of transgenic Japonica rice plants using non-antibiotic selectable agent, at simplified, cost- and labor-saving manners.