Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology

Urinary biomarker detection of melamine- and cyanuric acid-induced kidney injury in rats.

PMID 22610612


Oral coexposure of rats to melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) results in a dose-dependent increase in the formation of MEL-CYA crystals in the kidney. The aim of this study was to determine if urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury could be used to noninvasively detect renal damage associated with crystal formation in the kidneys of MEL- and CYA-exposed rats. Urine was obtained on days 0 (predose), 2, 4, 14, and 28 from male and female Fischer 344 rats fed a diet supplemented with 0, 120, 180, or 240 ppm each of MEL and CYA. A number of urinary protein biomarkers (kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, albumin, alpha-GST, GST-Yb1, renal papillary antigen 1 [RPA-1], and clusterin) were measured using a multiplex assay system. The results showed that RPA-1 (distal tubule and collecting duct injury biomarker) was elevated on day 28 at the 120 ppm dose and higher in male rats and at the 180 ppm dose and higher in female rats; however, other urinary protein biomarkers were significantly elevated only at the 240 ppm dose. Significant elevation in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels, and severe renal damage evidenced by histopathology, were observed after 28 days of exposure to the highest dose, despite the fact that MEL-CYA crystals were observable at the 120 and 180 ppm doses. These data indicate that RPA-1 may serve as a noninvasive urinary biomarker for the detection and monitoring of obstructive nephropathy associated with MEL-CYA exposure.

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Cyanuric acid, 98%
Cyanuric acid, analytical standard