Oncology reports

4-hexylresorcinol stimulates the differentiation of SCC-9 cells through the suppression of E2F2, E2F3 and Sp3 expression and the promotion of Sp1 expression.

PMID 22664654


The dormancy-inducing factors of bacteria inhibit tumor cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of the dormancy-inducing factor 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) using real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) in SCC-9 cells (tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells). Treatment with 4-HR suppressed the growth of SCC-9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We used a DNA microarray to identify genes that showed a significant change in expression upon 4-HR administration in SCC-9 cells. Among the differentially expressed genes, the protein expression of several cell proliferation related factors, including E2F1, E2F2, E2F3, E2F4, E2F5, E2F6, Sp1 and Sp3, were determined by western blot analyses. Treatment with 4-HR strongly suppressed E2F2 and slightly suppressed E2F3 but did not change the expression of E2F1, E2F4, E2F5 and E2F6 relative to no treatment. Furthermore, 4-HR increased Sp1 expression in a dose-dependent manner and decreased Sp3 expression. Therefore, the ratio of Sp1 to Sp3, an important driving force of epithelial cell differentiation, was drastically increased. Consistent with this observation, 4-HR increased the expression of the epithelial cell differentiation markers involucrin and keratin 10. Together, our results indicate that 4-HR induces the differentiation of SCC-9 via the modulation of the E2F-mediated signaling pathway.

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4-Hexylresorcinol, 98%