Novel Th1-biased adjuvant, SPO1, enhances mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of vaccines administered intranasally in mice.

PMID 22709954


Oil-in-water emulsions are potent human adjuvants commonly used in effective pandemic influenza vaccines; however, such emulsions that can induce both Th1-biased systemic immune responses and strong mucosal immune responses via an easy method of administration are lacking. To address this need for new adjuvants, we developed a novel oil/water emulsion, SPO1, which allows convenient mucosal immunization via an intranasal spray as well as by parenteral routes. Our report shows that SPO1 was able to boost up immunological resistance by inducing effective mucosal and serum antibodies, and the immune response was polarized to a Th1 pattern, as demonstrated by high IgG2α antibody levels and interferon-gamma production by splenocytes from intranasally (i.n.) immunized mice. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules on dendritic cells was also observed in vivo after i.n. immunization, suggesting a possible mechanism for the adjuvant effects of SPO1. Another explanation may simply be a depot of antigen at the immunization site, as evidenced by in vivo imaging of i.n. immunized mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that a novel oil/water emulsion, SPO1, is a potent Th1 adjuvant for use in influenza and other vaccines, as it induces strong mucosal and systemic immune responses.

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