Environmental toxicology and chemistry

Sublethal propoxur toxicity to juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758): biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and genotoxicity effects.

PMID 22730006


The sublethal toxicological and genotoxic potential of propoxur, a widely used carbamate insecticide against household pests, in veterinary medicine, and in public health, was evaluated on carp as a model species (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Based on the 96-h lethal concentration, 50% (LC50) data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX Database (10 mg/L), a sublethal exposure concentration of 5 mg/L was used under static bioassay laboratory conditions. Histopathological evaluation showed no significant changes in spleen, intestine, muscle, or skin tissues. However, the following conditions were recorded: hyperemia, branchitis in primary lamella, and telangiectasis, hyperplasia, fusion, epithelial lifting, and epithelial desquamation in secondary lamella of gill tissues; hemorrhage, destruction, prenephritis, and inflammation and desquamation in the tubules; edema in the kidney; passive hyperemia, albumin, and hydropic degeneration in the liver; and hyperemia, chromatolysis, and glial proliferation in brain tissues. No statistically significant increases in micronuclei frequencies were found. Hematological parameters showed decreased hematocrit values and mean corpuscular volume values, as well as increased erythrocyte and leukocyte counts compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, phosphorus, sodium, total plasma protein, chloride, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were increased (p < 0.01). Only plasma calcium and potassium levels decreased in the experimental group. Propoxur has an ecotoxicological potential on fish, a nontarget organism.

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Propoxur, PESTANAL®, analytical standard