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Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

Potential-modulated fluorescence spectroscopy of zwitterionic and dicationic membrane-potential-sensitive dyes at the 1,2-dichloroethane/water interface.


PMID 22744747

Abstract

The previously introduced technique of potential-modulated fluorescence (PMF) spectroscopy was used to study the potential-induced fluorescence change of some different dyes at the polarized 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE)/water (W) interface. A zwitterionic dye (POLARIC 488PPS) showed a PMF response similar to that for the previously studied dye (di-4-ANEPPS) with the same ionic state, and the PMF response was likewise explained by the potential-dependent reorientation of the dye at the DCE/W interface. Though a monocationic dye (POLARIC 488PM) showed no distinct PMF signal, a dicationic dye (di-2-ANEPEQ) showed two relatively weak but detectable PMF signals at lower and higher potential. It has thus been found that the ionic state of a potential-sensitive dye strongly influences the potential-induced reorientation of the dye at the interface and consequently its PMF response. These results support the reorientation/solvatochromic mechanism proposed for "slow" dyes but do not necessarily exclude the electrochromic mechanism proposed for "fast" dyes. PMF spectroscopy would provide useful information on the design of slow dyes for the measurement of the resting potential of cell membranes.