Fundamental & clinical pharmacology

Modulation of bone turnover in orchidectomized rats treated with raloxifene and risedronate.

PMID 22762129


Osteoporosis is a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). It develops less often in men than in women. This study aimed to evaluate the bone protective effects of raloxifene (RAL), risedronate (RIS), and their combination on osteoporotic male rats. Forty male Wister rats (12 weeks) were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operated group (n = 8), orchidectomized (ORX) group (n = 7), RAL group (n = 9), RIS group (n = 7) and RAL + RIS group (n = 7). RAL was orally administered at 3 mg/kg three times/week, and RIS was given subcutaneously at 5 μg/kg, twice weekly. After 6 weeks of treatment, serum cathepsin-K, alkaline (ALP) and acid phosphatase activities, serum osteocalcin, serum Ca²⁺, and Pi were determined. Urinary Ca²⁺ and deoxypyridinoline levels, BMD, and Ca²⁺ content of femur ash were estimated. Histochemical localization of ALP activity of tibia and histomorphometry was examined. As compared to sham, ORX rats showed a significant increase in bone turnover markers, and histochemical activity of ALP was increased markedly in proximal tibia of ORX rats, whereas BMD and Ca²⁺ content of femur ash were reduced after ORX. These changes were modulated after treatment with RAL and RIS or both to ORX rats; BMD of femur was improved by each treatment, and bone turnover markers were reduced as compared to ORX vehicle group. We concluded that orchidectomy induced osteoporosis and increased bone turnover in male rats because of withdrawal of sex hormones. Both RAL and RIS could treat osteoporosis in ORX rats; they reduced bone turnover markers and maintained BMD.