Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

Altering the proclivity towards daptomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using combinations with other antibiotics.

PMID 22802248


Daptomycin (DAP) is increasingly used as a part of combination therapy, particularly in complex methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. While multiple studies have reported the potential for synergy between DAP and adjunctive anti-infectives, few have examined the influence of adjunctive therapy on the emergence of DAP resistance. This study examined eight adjunctive antimicrobial combinations with DAP in vitro and the emergence of DAP resistance over time (up to 4 weeks) using clinical isolates of DAP-susceptible MRSA (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) in which DAP resistance subsequently developed during patient therapy (MIC, 3 μg/ml). In addition to DAP susceptibility testing, selected strains were examined for phenotypic changes associated with DAP resistance, including changes to cell wall thickness (CWT) and cell membrane alterations. The addition of either oxacillin or clarithromycin in medium containing DAP significantly inhibited the development of DAP resistance through the entirety of the 4-week exposure (10- to 32-fold MIC reduction from that of DAP alone). Combinations with rifampin or fosfomycin were effective in delaying the emergence of DAP resistance through the end of week one only (week one MIC, 0.5 μg/ml; week four MIC, 24 μg/ml). Cell wall thickening was observed for all antibiotic combinations regardless of their effect on the DAP MIC (14 to 70% increase in CWT), while changes in cell membrane fluidity were variable and treatment dependent. DAP showed reduced activity against strains with DAP MICs of 1 to 12 μg/ml, but cell membrane integrity was still disrupted at concentrations achieved with doses greater than 10 mg/kg of body weight. The emergence of DAP resistance in MRSA is strongly influenced by the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of adjunctive antimicrobials. These data suggest that combining DAP with oxacillin or clarithromycin may delay the development of DAP resistance in cases requiring prolonged antibiotic therapy.