The Journal of biological chemistry

Role of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) 5-phosphatase skeletal muscle- and kidney-enriched inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (SKIP) in myoblast differentiation.

PMID 22815484


Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are essential for the development, regeneration, and hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. IGF-II promotes myoblast differentiation through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), Akt, and mTOR signaling. Here, we report that skeletal muscle- and kidney-enriched inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (SKIP) negatively regulates myogenesis through inhibition of IGF-II production and attenuation of the IGF-II-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. We also demonstrate that SKIP expression, which was markedly elevated during differentiation, was controlled by MyoD in C2C12 cells. Expression of SKIP inhibited IGF-II at the transcription level. These results indicate that SKIP regulates MyoD-mediated muscle differentiation. Silencing of SKIP increased IGF-II transcription and myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of SKIP resulted in thick myotubes with a larger number of nuclei than that in control C2C12 cells. Taken together, these data indicate that SKIP controls the IGF-II-PI 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR auto-regulation loop during myogenesis. Our findings identify SKIP as a key regulator of muscle cell differentiation.